"When the computer is booted up, the operating system executes the CPUID instruction to identify the processor and its capabilities. Before it can do so, it must first query the processor to find out the highest input value CPUID recognizes. This determines the kind of basic information CPUID can provide the operating system.
To do so, the operating system must execute CPUID with the EAX register set to 0. Here's a table of the maximum CPUID input values the operating system will obtain from Intel processors when CPUID is executed... "
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